Balanced Match: Two or more veneers components
or leaves of equal size to make a single face.
Book Match: Adjacent pieces of veneer from a
flitch or log are opened like a book and spliced
to make up the face with matching occurring at
the spliced joints. The fibers of the wood, slanting
in opposite direction in the adjacent sheets,
create a characteristic light and dark effect
when the surface is seen from an angle.
Cathedral: A grain appearance characterized
by a series of stacked and inverted "V" or cathedral
type spring wood (early wood) summerwood (late
wood) patterns common in plain-sliced veneer.
Center Match: An even number of veneer components
or leaves of equal size matched with a joint
in the center of the panel to achieve horizontal
Comb Grain: A quality of rift cut veneer with
exceptionally straight grain and closely spaced
growth increments resembling the appearance of
long strands of combed hair.
Core: The inner part of plywood between face
and back, usually veneer. Sawn lumber, particleboard.
MDF, hardboard, or other material is used as
Cross Banding: Veneer used in the construction
of plywood with five or more plies. Crossbands
are placed at right angles to the grain of the
faces and are typically placed adjacent to the
face and back. Also refers to all inner layers
of veneer whose grain direction runs perpendicular
to that of the outer plies and includes parallel
Flitch: A complete bundle of veneer sheets laid
Gum Spots and Streaks: Gum or resinous material
or color spots and streaks caused by prior resin
accumulations sometimes found on panel surfaces.
Half-Round: A method of veneer cutting similar
to rotary cutting, except that the piece being
cut is secured to a "stay log," a device that
permits the cutting of the log on a wider sweep
then when mounted with its center secured in
the lathe to produce rotary sliced veneer. A
type of half round cutting is used to achieve
plain-sliced or flat-cut veneer.
Hardboard: Homogeneous panels manufactured primarily
from inter-felted lignocellulosic (wood) fibers
consolidated under heat and pressure with a density
of 497 kg/m3 or more.
Hardwood: General term used to designate lumber
or veneer produced from temperate zone deciduous
or tropical broad-leaved trees in contrast to
softwood, which is produced from trees which
are usually needle bearing or coniferous. The
term does not infer hardness in its physical
Inner Plies: Plies other than face or back plies
in a panel construction. Crossbands and centers
are classed as inner plies.
Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF): A panel or
core product manufactured from wood fibers combined
with a symmetric resin or other bonding system.
MDF is manufactured with a minimum density of
497 kg/m3 up to 881 kg/m3 by the application
of heat and pressure by a process in which the
fiber bond is substantially created by the added
Particleboard: A panel or core composed of small
particles of wood and wood fiber that are bonded
together with synthetic resin adhesives in the
presence of heat and pressure.
Plain-Sliced (Flat-Cut): Veneer sliced parallel
to the pith of the log and approximately tangent
to the growth rings to achieve flat-cut veneer.
Plain-sliced veneer is cut using either a horizontal
or vertical slicing machine or by the half-round
method using a rotary lathe.
Pleasing Matched: A face containing components
which provides a pleasing overall appearance.
The grain of the various components need not
be matched at the joints. Sharp color contrasts
at the joints of the components are not permitted.
Ply: A single set of veneer or several strips
laid with adjoining edges that may or may not
be glued, which forms one veneer lamina in a
glued panel. In some constructions, a ply is
used to refer to other wood components such as
particleboard or MDF.
Plywood, Hardwood: A panel composed of an assembly
of layers or plies of veneer or veneers in combination
with lumber core, particleboard core, MDF core,
hardboard core, or of a special core material
joined with an adhesive. Except constructions,
the grain of alternate plies is at right angles
and the face veneer is a hardwood species.
Quarter-Sliced: A straight grain appearance
achieved through the process of quarter-slicing
or through the use of veneer cut in any fashion
that produces a straight grain effect. Cut is
radial to the pith to the extent that ray fleck
is produced, and the amount of fleck is not limited.
Random Matched (Mismatched): A panel having
the face made up of specially selected dissimilar
(in color and grain) veneer strips of the same
species and generally V-grooved at the joints
between strips to stimulate lumber planking.
Rift-Cut: A straight grain appearance achieved
through the process of cutting at a slight angle
to the radial on the half-round stay log or through
the use of veneer cut in any fashion that produces
a straight grain with minimal ray fleck.
Rotary Cut: Veneer produced by centering the
log in a lathe a turning it against a broad cutting
knife which is set into the log at a slight angle.
Running Match: The panel face is made from the
components running through the flitch consecutively.
Any portion of a component left over from a face
is used as the beginning component or leaf in
starting the next panel.
Sliced: Veneer produced by thrusting a log or
sawed flitch into a slicing machine which shears
off the veneer in sheets.
Slip Matched: A sheet from a flitch is slid
beneath and, without turning at the joints.
Softwood: General term used to describe lumber
or veneer produced from needle and/or cone bearing
trees. SM#: Sequenced, matched, numbered. Veneer
taken from same log - cut in sequence. Numbered
in order for matched panels.
Veneer: A thin sheet of wood, rotary cut, sliced,
or sawed from a log, bolt, or flitch.